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Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jun;102:798-811. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.03.139. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Perinatal exposure to energy drink induces oxidative damage in the liver, kidney and brain, and behavioral alterations in mice offspring.

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Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Electronic address:


The worldwide consumption of energy drinks (EDs) has increased in recent years. EDs have several side effects and can be linked to liver injury, kidney damage and risk-seeking behavior. The impact of perinatal consumption of EDs on the newborns has not been previously investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of perinatal exposure to a caffeinated ED on the liver, kidney, brain, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 2.5 or 5 ml ED by oral gavage from the first day of pregnancy until day 15 after birth. Perinatal exposure to the ED induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidant defenses in the liver, kidney, cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the newborns at days 21 and 35 after birth. ED induced several histological alterations, including vacuolations and lipid infiltration of hepatocytes, developing and degenerated glomeruli and dilated urinary spaces in the renal cortex, pyknosis and chromatolysis of the cerebral and medullary neurons, and degenerated and abnormal Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. In addition, ED increased the locomotion and induced anxiety-like behavior in mice newborns. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to EDs induces oxidative stress, tissue injury and behavioral alterations in the mice newborns. Therefore, the consumption of EDs during pregnancy and lactation has a negative impact on the newborns and should be treated as a significant health problem that warrants attention.


Caffeine; Energy drinks; Liver injury; Oxidative stress; Taurine

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