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Trends Parasitol. 2018 Jun;34(6):466-480. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2018.03.002. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Trypanosomatids Are Much More than Just Trypanosomes: Clues from the Expanded Family Tree.

Author information

1
Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 370 05 České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic; Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic. Electronic address: jula@paru.cas.cz.
2
Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 370 05 České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic; Life Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 710 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic.
3
Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 370 05 České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic; Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic.
4
Department of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
5
Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 370 05 České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic; Faculty of Science, Charles University, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic.

Abstract

Trypanosomes and leishmanias are widely known parasites of humans. However, they are just two out of several phylogenetic lineages that constitute the family Trypanosomatidae. Although dixeny - the ability to infect two hosts - is a derived trait of vertebrate-infecting parasites, the majority of trypanosomatids are monoxenous. Like their common ancestor, the monoxenous Trypanosomatidae are mostly parasites or commensals of insects. This review covers recent advances in the study of insect trypanosomatids, highlighting their diversity as well as genetic, morphological and biochemical complexity, which, until recently, was underappreciated. The investigation of insect trypanosomatids is providing an important foundation for understanding the origin and evolution of parasitism, including colonization of vertebrates and the appearance of human pathogens.

KEYWORDS:

diversity; endosymbiosis; phylogeny; trypanosomatids; virus

PMID:
29605546
DOI:
10.1016/j.pt.2018.03.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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