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Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 May;108:214-218. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.03.011. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and growth failure.

Author information

1
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Universitari General de Catalunya, Spain; Medicine Department, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Spain. Electronic address: eesteller@gmail.com.
2
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Universitari General de Catalunya, Spain.
3
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Universitari General de Catalunya, Spain; Medicine Department, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Spain.
4
Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Spain.
5
Physical Therapy Department (Biostatistics Unit), Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Spain.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common problem among children and is recognized as a cause of significant medical morbidity. Since the 1980s, it has been suggested that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a risk factor for growth failure in children. In many cases, it has been shown that growth failure is reversible once the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is resolved. The objectives of this study were to analyze and compare growth failure prevalence in a Mediterranean population of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and healthy children matched in age and sex, and to assess the effectiveness of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in resolving growth retardation. We compared 172 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3) who had undergone tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy with 172 healthy controls in terms of key anthropometric parameters. Most of the criteria used for growth failure were higher to a statistically significant degree in the study group vs the control group: height-for-age ≤ 3rd percentile (7.56% vs 2.91%; p = 0.044), weight-for-age ≤ 5th percentile (9.30% vs 2.33%; p = 0.005), weight-for-age ≤ 3rd percentile (8.14% vs 2.33%; p = 0.013) and height and/or weight for-age ≤ 5th percentile (13.95% vs 5.81%; p = 0.009). The height-for-age ≤ 5th percentile was almost at the limit of statistical significance (8.72% for the study group vs 4.65% for the control group; p = 0.097). At one-year post-surgery follow-up, 10 of 15 children with height-for-age ≤ 5th percentile had achieved catch-up growth (66.6%), and 14 of 24 children with height- and/or weight-for-age ≤ 5th percentile had normalized growth (58.33%). For children with failure to thrive or who have growth failure, physicians should consider the possibility of obstructive sleep apnea. A significant number of children with obstructive sleep apnea concurrent with growth failure could benefit from tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy to recover and normalize their growth rate.

KEYWORDS:

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy; Growth failure; Obstructive sleep apnea; Sleep-disordered breathing; Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)

PMID:
29605357
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.03.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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