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Plant Biotechnol J. 2018 Nov;16(11):1904-1917. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12926. Epub 2018 May 25.

Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
2
Phyzen Genomics Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
3
Department of Life Science, Chromosome Research Institute, Sahmyook University, Seoul, Korea.
4
Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore City, Singapore.
5
School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
6
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
7
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA, USA.
8
Planning and Coordination Division, NIHS, RDA, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.
9
Ginseng Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea.
10
Department of Biological Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
11
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
12
Genomics Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.
13
Department of Bioindustry and Bioresource Engineering, Plant Engineering Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea.
14
Division of Integrative Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea.
15
Department of Industrial Plant Science & Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea.
16
Laboratory of Resource and Analysis, R&D Headquarters, Korea Ginseng Corporation, Daejeon, Korea.
17
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
18
Korean Bioinformation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Korea.
19
Graduate School of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
20
Arizona Genomics Institute, School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
21
Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Abstract

Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering.

KEYWORDS:

Panax ginseng ; adaptation; evolution; ginsenosides; metabolic network

PMID:
29604169
PMCID:
PMC6181221
DOI:
10.1111/pbi.12926
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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