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Nutrients. 2018 Mar 30;10(4). pii: E432. doi: 10.3390/nu10040432.

Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids.

Author information

1
Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904 São Paulo, Brazil. mmrogero@usp.br.
2
Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo 05468-140, Brazil. mmrogero@usp.br.
3
Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. P.C.Calder@soton.ac.uk.
4
National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust and University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. P.C.Calder@soton.ac.uk.

Abstract

Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is acknowledged as one of the main triggers of the obesity-induced inflammatory response. The aim of the present review is to describe the role that is played by the TLR4 signaling pathway in the inflammatory response and its modulation by saturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies indicate that saturated fatty acids can induce inflammation by activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, exert anti-inflammatory actions through the attenuation of the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by either lipopolysaccharides or saturated fatty acids.

KEYWORDS:

fatty acids; inflammation; obesity; toll-like receptor 4

PMID:
29601492
PMCID:
PMC5946217
DOI:
10.3390/nu10040432
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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