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Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Jul 15;24(14):3409-3422. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1717. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Combinatorial Effects of VEGFR Kinase Inhibitor Axitinib and Oncolytic Virotherapy in Mouse and Human Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cell Models.

Author information

1
Molecular Neurosurgery Laboratory and the Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Molecular Neurosurgery Laboratory and the Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. rmartuza@mgh.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM), a fatal brain cancer, contains a subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that contribute to resistance to current therapy. Angiogenesis also plays a key role in GBM progression. Therefore, we developed a strategy to target the complex GBM microenvironment, including GSCs and tumor vasculature.Experimental Design: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of VEFGR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) axitinib in vitro and then tested antitumor efficacy of axitinib in combination with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) expressing antiangiogenic cytokine murine IL12 (G47Δ-mIL12) in two orthotopic GSC-derived GBM models: patient-derived recurrent MGG123 GSCs, forming vascular xenografts in immunodeficient mice; and mouse 005 GSCs, forming syngeneic tumors in immunocompetent mice.Results: GSCs form endothelial-like tubes and were sensitive to axitinib. G47Δ-mIL12 significantly improved survival, as did axitinib, while dual combinations further extended survival significantly compared with single therapies alone in both models. In MGG123 tumors, axitinib was effective only at high doses (50 mg/kg), alone and in combination with G47Δ-mIL12, and this was associated with greatly decreased vascularity, increased macrophage infiltration, extensive tumor necrosis, and PDGFR/ERK pathway inhibition. In the mouse 005 model, antiglioma activity, after single and combination therapy, was only observed in immunocompetent mice and not the T-cell-deficient athymic mice. Interestingly, immune checkpoint inhibition did not improve efficacy.Conclusions: Systemic TKI (axitinib) beneficially combines with G47Δ-mIL12 to enhance antitumor efficacy in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent orthotopic GBM models. Our results support further investigation of TKIs in combination with oHSV for GBM treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 3409-22. ©2018 AACR.

PMID:
29599413
PMCID:
PMC6050085
DOI:
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1717
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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