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Anesth Analg. 2018 Oct;127(4):1044-1050. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003342.

A Dedicated Acute Pain Service Is Associated With Reduced Postoperative Opioid Requirements in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery With Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

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From the Department of Anesthesiology.
Division of Biomedical Informatics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California.



The Acute Pain Service (APS) was initially introduced to optimize multimodal postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the implementation of an APS and postoperative pain management and outcomes for patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC).


In this propensity-matched retrospective cohort study, we performed a before-after study without a concurrent control group. Outcomes were compared among patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC when APS was implemented versus historical controls (non-APS). The primary objective was to determine if there was a decrease in median total opioid consumption during postoperative days 0-3 among patients managed by the APS. Secondary outcomes included opioid consumption on each postoperative day (0-6), time to ambulation, time to solid intake, and hospital length of stay.


After exclusion, there were a total of 122 patients, of which 51 and 71 were in the APS and non-APS cohort, respectively. Between propensity-matched groups, the median (quartiles) total opioid consumption during postoperative days 0-3 was 27.5 mg intravenous morphine equivalents (MEQs) (7.6-106.3 mg MEQs) versus 144.0 mg MEQs (68.9-238.3 mg MEQs), respectively. The median difference was 80.8 mg MEQs (95% confidence interval, 46.1-124.0; P < .0001). There were statistically significant decreases in time to ambulation and time to solid diet intake in the APS cohort.


After implementing the APS, CRS-HIPEC patients had decreased opioid consumption by >50%, as well as shorter time to ambulation and time to solid intake. Implementation of an APS may improve outcomes in CRS-HIPEC patients.

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