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Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2018 Apr;14(4):315-327. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2018.1459571. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and chronic periodontitis.

Author information

1
a Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry , University of São Paulo , São Paulo , Brazil.
2
b Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, and Periodontology, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto , University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.
3
c Department of Dental Material and Prosthesis, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto , USP - University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.
4
d Division of Dentistry and Stomatology, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirão Preto Medical School , University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.
5
e Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School , USP - University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.
6
f GIMAP EA 3064 (Groupe Immunité des Muqueuses et Agents Pathogènes) , University of Lyon , Saint-Etienne , France.
7
g Department of Stomatology, Public Oral Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto , University of São Paulo , Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.

Abstract

Current studies show that, even in the era of antiretroviral therapies, HIV-1 infection is associated with more severe and frequent refractory chronic periodontitis. Areas covered: This review, based on a systematic analysis of the literature, intends to provide an update on factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV-1-infected patients, including local immunosuppression, oral microbial factors, systemic inflammation, salivary markers, and the role of gingival tissue as a possible reservoir of HIV-1. Expert commentary: The therapeutic revolution of ART made HIV-1 infection a chronic controllable disease, reduced HIV-1 mortality rate, restored at least partially the immune response and dramatically increased life expectancy of HIV-1-infected patients. Despite all these positive aspects, chronic periodontitis assumes an important role in the HIV-1 infection status for activating systemic inflammation favoring viral replication and influencing HIV-1 status, and also acting as a possible reservoir of HIV-1. All these issues still need to be clarified and validated, but have important clinical implications that certainly will benefit the diagnosis and management of chronic periodontitis in HIV-1-infected patients, and also contributes to HIV-1 eradication.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1 infection; mucosal reservoir; oral microbiota; periodontal diseases; saliva

PMID:
29595347
DOI:
10.1080/1744666X.2018.1459571
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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