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Front Pharmacol. 2018 Mar 9;9:200. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00200. eCollection 2018.

East Indian Sandalwood Oil Is a Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor: A New Therapeutic Option in the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Disease.

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The Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Santalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Antonio, TX, United States.
Texas Dermatology and Laser Specialists, San Antonio, TX, United States.
Department of Urologic Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


Cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production. One isoform, PDE4, is overactive in chronic relapsing inflammatory skin diseases: psoriasis and eczema/atopic dermatitis, and in several cancers. East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO) has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we report that 75% of pediatric eczema/atopic dermatitis patients treated with topical EISO formulations achieved a >50% reduction in their Eczema Area and Severity Index score. EISO treatment of a psoriasis model reduced PDE4 expression and reversed histopathology. EISO directly inhibited PDE enzymatic activity in vitro. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human dermal fibroblast, BEAS-2B, A549, and THP-1 cells, EISO suppressed total cellular PDE activity, PDE4, and 7 transcript levels, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine production. These results suggest that EISO anti-inflammatory activity is mediated through suppressing PDE activity, thus facilitating cAMP-regulated inhibition of NF-κB and indicate EISO as an attractive natural therapeutic for chronic and acute inflammatory disorders.


anti-inflammatory; anti-proliferative; atopic dermatitis; cancer; eczema; phosphodiesterase; psoriasis; skin organoid

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