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Cell Rep. 2018 Mar 27;22(13):3641-3659. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.03.012.

Enhancer Activation by Pharmacologic Displacement of LSD1 from GFI1 Induces Differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Author information

1
Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre Building, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4GJ, UK.
2
Computational Biology Support, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre Building, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4GJ, UK.
3
Drug Discovery Unit, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre Building, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4GJ, UK.
4
Biological Mass Spectrometry Facility, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre Building, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4GJ, UK.
5
Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre Building, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4GJ, UK. Electronic address: tim.somervaille@cruk.manchester.ac.uk.

Abstract

Pharmacologic inhibition of LSD1 promotes blast cell differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with MLL translocations. The assumption has been that differentiation is induced through blockade of LSD1's histone demethylase activity. However, we observed that rapid, extensive, drug-induced changes in transcription occurred without genome-wide accumulation of the histone modifications targeted for demethylation by LSD1 at sites of LSD1 binding and that a demethylase-defective mutant rescued LSD1 knockdown AML cells as efficiently as wild-type protein. Rather, LSD1 inhibitors disrupt the interaction of LSD1 and RCOR1 with the SNAG-domain transcription repressor GFI1, which is bound to a discrete set of enhancers located close to transcription factor genes that regulate myeloid differentiation. Physical separation of LSD1/RCOR1 from GFI1 is required for drug-induced differentiation. The consequent inactivation of GFI1 leads to increased enhancer histone acetylation within hours, which directly correlates with the upregulation of nearby subordinate genes.

KEYWORDS:

GFI1; LSD1; MLL; acetylation; acute myeloid leukemia; methylation

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