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Curr Med Chem. 2019;26(10):1806-1832. doi: 10.2174/0929867325666180327093502.

An Update on JAK Inhibitors.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV, 3, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
2
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy.
3
College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Umm Al-Qura University, 21955-Makkah Al- Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, composed by four members, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2. JAKs are involved in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in malignancies, through the activation of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Furthermore, the V617F mutation in JAK2 was identified in patients affected by myeloproliferative neoplasms. This knowledge prompted researchers from academia and pharmaceutical companies to investigate this field in order to discover small molecule JAK inhibitors. These efforts recently afforded to the market approval of four JAK inhibitors. Despite the fact that all these drugs are pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives, many compounds endowed with different heterocyclic scaffolds have been reported in the literature as selective or multi-JAK inhibitors, and a number of them is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review we will report many representative compounds that have been published in articles or patents in the last five years (period 2013-2017). The inhibitors will be classified on the basis of their chemical structure, focusing, when possible, on their structure activity relationships, selectivity and biological activity. For every class of derivatives, compounds disclosed before 2013 that have entered clinical trials will also be briefly reported, to underline the importance of a particular chemical scaffold in the search for new inhibitors.

KEYWORDS:

JAK inhibitors; anticancer agents; autoimmune diseases; covalent inhibitors; heterocyclic compounds; inflammatory diseases; patents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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