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BMC Bioinformatics. 2018 Mar 27;19(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s12859-018-2124-3.

CarrierSeq: a sequence analysis workflow for low-input nanopore sequencing.

Author information

1
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, E25-610, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA. mojarro@mit.edu.
2
ReadCoor, Cambridge, MA, USA.
3
Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, E25-610, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Long-read nanopore sequencing technology is of particular significance for taxonomic identification at or below the species level. For many environmental samples, the total extractable DNA is far below the current input requirements of nanopore sequencing, preventing "sample to sequence" metagenomics from low-biomass or recalcitrant samples.

RESULTS:

Here we address this problem by employing carrier sequencing, a method to sequence low-input DNA by preparing the target DNA with a genomic carrier to achieve ideal library preparation and sequencing stoichiometry without amplification. We then use CarrierSeq, a sequence analysis workflow to identify the low-input target reads from the genomic carrier. We tested CarrierSeq experimentally by sequencing from a combination of 0.2 ng Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 DNA in a background of 1000 ng Enterobacteria phage λ DNA. After filtering of carrier, low quality, and low complexity reads, we detected target reads (B. subtilis), contamination reads, and "high quality noise reads" (HQNRs) not mapping to the carrier, target or known lab contaminants. These reads appear to be artifacts of the nanopore sequencing process as they are associated with specific channels (pores).

CONCLUSION:

By treating sequencing as a Poisson arrival process, we implement a statistical test to reject data from channels dominated by HQNRs while retaining low-input target reads.

KEYWORDS:

Low-input sequencing; Metagenomics; Nanopore sequencing

PMID:
29587645
PMCID:
PMC5872496
DOI:
10.1186/s12859-018-2124-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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