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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Mar 27;19(3):791-796.

Individual and Integrated Effects of Potential Risk Factors for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

Author information

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Email: dr.faeq.quadri@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with a high prevalence reported in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this study were to check individual and integrated effects of potential risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A case control study was designed with a sample of 210 subjects, in which histopathologically confirmed incident cases (n=70) and controls (n=140) matched for age, gender and referral route, were recruited. Differences in exposure to potential risk factors between cases and controls were assessed using chi-square and McNemar analyses. A logistic regression model with interactions was applied to check individual and integrated effects.

RESULTS:

Mean age of the sample was 55 years (+ 20 years). Shammah (O.R = 33.01; C.I = 3.22 – 39.88), shisha (O.R = 3.96; C.I = 0.24 – 63.38), and cigarette (O.R = 1.58; C.I = 0.13, 2.50) consumption was significantly associated (P<0.05) with oral squamous cell carcinoma development. In contrast, Khat chewing (O.R = 0.67; C.I = 0.19-2.36) was without significant effect. An increase in odds ratios was observed when combinations of shammah and shisha (O.R = 35.03; C.I = 11.50-65.66), shisha and cigarettes (O.R = 10.52; C.I = 1.03 – 33.90) or shamma and cigarettes (O.R = 10.10; C.I = 0.50 - 20.40) were used.

CONCLUSION:

Combined exposure to risk-factors has serious implications and policies on oral cancer prevention should be designed with attention to this aspect.

KEYWORDS:

Shammah; oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral cancer; case control study; Jazan; Saudi Arabia

PMID:
29582636
PMCID:
PMC5980857
DOI:
10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.791
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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