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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Mar 27;19(3):755-761.

Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Preventing Cervical Cancer among Marginalized Women in West Iran

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Department of Public Health, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Email:



This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework.


This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests.


The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p < 0.001). Also, the prevalence of regular Pap smear testing and referral to health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05).


The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing.


Papanicolaou test; protection motivation theory; uterine cervical neoplasms; women

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