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Neurosci Res. 2018 Mar 23. pii: S0168-0102(18)30026-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2018.03.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Neuroimaging correlates of narcolepsy with cataplexy: A systematic review.

Author information

1
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: m.wada@keio.jp.
2
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: mimura@a7.keio.jp.
3
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: yoshi-tms@keio.jp.
4
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: s.takasu@keio.jp.
5
Multimodal Imaging Group - Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address: eric.plitman@mail.utoronto.ca.
6
Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan; Seiwa Hospital, 91 Bententyo, Sinjyuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-0851, Japan. Electronic address: honda-mk@igakuken.or.jp.
7
Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan. Electronic address: natsubori-ak@igakuken.or.jp.
8
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: camille.1896@keio.jp.
9
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address: 81770730@keio.jp.
10
Multimodal Imaging Group - Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada; Geriatric Mental Health Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 80 Workman Way, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada. Electronic address: ariel.graff@camh.ca.
11
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan; Multimodal Imaging Group - Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada. Electronic address: piojo629.a6@keio.jp.

Abstract

Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques have advanced our understanding of biological mechanisms underpinning narcolepsy. We used MEDLINE to retrieve neuroimaging studies to compare patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Thirty-seven studies were identified and demonstrated several replicated abnormalities: (1) gray matter reductions in superior frontal, superior and inferior temporal, and middle occipital gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens, (2) decreased fractional anisotropy in white matter of fronto-orbital and cingulate area, (3) reduced brain metabolism or cerebral blood flow in middle and superior frontal, and cingulate cortex (4) increased activity in inferior frontal gyri, insula, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, and (5) N-acetylaspartate/creatine-phosphocreatine level reduction in hypothalamus. In conclusion, all the replicated findings are still controversial due to the limitations such as heterogeneity or size of the samples and lack of multimodal imaging or follow-up. Thus, future neuroimaging studies should employ multimodal imaging methods in a large sample size of patients with narcolepsy and consider age, duration of disease, age at onset, severity, human leukocyte antigen type, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels, and medication intake in order to elucidate possible neuroimaging characteristic of narcolepsy and identify therapeutic targets.

KEYWORDS:

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Positron emission tomography (PET); Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS); Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); Voxel-based morphometry (VBM)

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