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Am Surg. 2018 Feb 1;84(2):273-281.

Clinicopathological Features and Management of Appendiceal Mucoceles: A Systematic Review.


Appendiceal mucoceles (AMs) are rare mucin-containing neoplasms with malignant potential. Lack of evidence-based data exists defining clinicopathological features for management. MEDLINE search between 1995 and 2015 was performed using search criteria "Appendix mucocele." Systematic review of patient-, pathologic-, and treatment-related characteristics was performed and data analyzed. Among 276 cases of non-perforated AMs, 163 (59%) patients were female, with variable and nonspecific presentation. Patients were treated with appendectomy (52.1%), right hemicolectomy (17.6%), partial cecectomy (17.2%), and ileocecetomy (13.1%). Pathologic evaluation revealed the following: cystadenoma/low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (54%), unspecified/benign (25%), retention cyst (14.1%), cystadenocarcinoma (4.2%), and mucosal hyperplasia (2.9%). All 11 (4.2%) patients with cystadenocarcinoma were female (P = 0.004), odds ratio for malignancy 1.07 times higher for women. Synchronous colonic malignancy was reported in three patients (27%) with cystadenocarcinoma (P = 0.007), odds ratio of 12.1. AMs have low risk for malignancy. Treatment should begin with appendectomy-only and subsequently guided by pathologic diagnosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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