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Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Mar 19. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy016. [Epub ahead of print]

Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants.

Collaborators (860)

Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bixby H, Danaei G, Hajifathalian K, Taddei C, Carrillo-Larco RM, Djalalinia S, Khatibzadeh S, Lugero C, Peykari N, Zhang WZ, Bennett J, Bilano V, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Riley LM, Chen Z, Hambleton IR, Jackson RT, Kengne AP, Khang YH, Laxmaiah A, Liu J, Malekzadeh R, Neuhauser HK, Sorić M, Starc G, Sundström J, Woodward M, Ezzati M, Abarca-Gómez L, Abdeen ZA, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Acosta-Cazares B, Adams RJ, Aekplakorn W, Afsana K, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Agyemang C, Ahmad NA, Ahmadvand A, Ahrens W, Ajlouni K, Akhtaeva N, Al-Raddadi R, Ali MM, Ali O, Alkerwi A, Aly E, Amarapurkar DN, Amouyel P, Amuzu A, Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Ängquist LH, Anjana RM, Ansong D, Aounallah-Skhiri H, Araújo J, Ariansen I, Aris T, Arlappa N, Arveiler D, Aryal KK, Aspelund T, Assah FK, Assunção MCF, Avdicová M, Azevedo A, Azizi F, Babu BV, Bahijri S, Balakrishna N, Bamoshmoosh M, Banach M, Bandosz P, Banegas JR, Barbagallo CM, Barceló A, Barkat A, Barros AJD, Barros MV, Bata I, Batieha AM, Batyrbek A, Baur LA, Beaglehole R, Romdhane HB, Benet M, Benson LS, Bernabe-Ortiz A, Bernotiene G, Bettiol H, Bhagyalaxmi A, Bharadwaj S, Bhargava SK, Bi Y, Bikbov M, Bista B, Bjerregaard P, Bjertness E, Bjertness MB, Björkelund C, Blokstra A, Bo S, Bobak M, Boeing H, Boggia JG, Boissonnet CP, Bongard V, Borchini R, Bovet P, Braeckman L, Brajkovich I, Branca F, Breckenkamp J, Brenner H, Brewster LM, Bruno G, Bueno-de-Mesquita HBA, Bugge A, Burns C, Bursztyn M, de León AC, Cacciottolo J, Cai H, Cameron C, Can G, Cândido APC, Capuano V, Cardoso VC, Carlsson AC, Carvalho MJ, Casanueva FF, Casas JP, Caserta CA, Chamukuttan S, Chan AW, Chan Q, Chaturvedi HK, Chaturvedi N, Chen CJ, Chen F, Chen H, Chen S, Chen Z, Cheng CY, Dekkaki IC, Chetrit A, Chiolero A, Chiou ST, Chirita-Emandi A, Chirlaque MD, Cho B, Cho Y, Christofaro DG, Chudek J, Cifkova R, Cinteza E, Claessens F, Clays E, Concin H, Cooper C, Cooper R, Coppinger TC, Costanzo S, Cottel D, Cowell C, Craig CL, Crujeiras AB, Cruz JJ, D'Arrigo G, d'Orsi E, Dallongeville J, Damasceno A, Danaei G, Dankner R, Dantoft TM, Dauchet L, Davletov K, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, de Gaetano G, De Henauw S, de Oliveira PD, De Smedt D, Deepa M, Dehghan A, Delisle H, Deschamps V, Dhana K, Di Castelnuovo AF, Dias-da-Costa JS, Diaz A, Dickerson TT, Djalalinia S, Do HTP, Donfrancesco C, Donoso SP, Döring A, Dorobantu M, Doua K, Drygas W, Dulskiene V, Džakula A, Dzerve V, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E, Eggertsen R, Ekelund U, El Ati J, Elliott P, Elosua R, Erasmus RT, Erem C, Eriksen L, Eriksson JG, Escobedo-de la Peña J, Evans A, Faeh D, Fall CH, Farzadfar F, Felix-Redondo FJ, Ferguson TS, Fernandes RA, Fernández-Bergés D, Ferrante D, Ferrari M, Ferreccio C, Ferrieres J, Finn JD, Fischer K, Föger B, Foo LH, Forslund AS, Forsner M, Fouad HM, Francis DK, do Carmo Franco M, Franco OH, Frontera G, Fuchs FD, Fuchs SC, Fujita Y, Furusawa T, Gaciong Z, Galvano F, Garcia-de-la-Hera M, Gareta D, Garnett SP, Gaspoz JM, Gasull M, Gates L, Geleijnse JM, Ghasemian A, Ghimire A, Giampaoli S, Gianfagna F, Gill TK, Giovannelli J, Goldsmith RA, Gonçalves H, Gonzalez-Gross M, González-Rivas JP, Gorbea MB, Gottrand F, Graff-Iversen S, Grafnetter D, Grajda A, Grammatikopoulou MG, Gregor RD, Grodzicki T, Grøntved A, Grosso G, Gruden G, Grujic V, Gu D, Guan OP, Gudmundsson EF, Gudnason V, Guerrero R, Guessous I, Guimaraes AL, Gulliford MC, Gunnlaugsdottir J, Gunter M, Gupta PC, Gupta R, Gureje O, Gurzkowska B, Gutierrez L, Gutzwiller F, Hadaegh F, Halkjær J, Hambleton IR, Hardy R, Hari Kumar R, Hata J, Hayes AJ, He J, He Y, Elisabeth M, Henriques A, Cadena LH, Herrala S, Heshmat R, Hihtaniemi IT, Ho SY, Ho SC, Hobbs M, Hofman A, Dinc GH, Horimoto ARVR, Hormiga CM, Horta BL, Houti L, Howitt C, Htay TT, Htet AS, Than Htike MM, Hu Y, Huerta JM, Huisman M, Husseini AS, Huybrechts I, Hwalla N, Iacoviello L, Iannone AG, Ibrahim MM, Wong NI, Ikeda N, Ikram MA, Irazola VE, Islam M, Al-Safi Ismail A, Ivkovic V, Iwasaki M, Jackson RT, Jacobs JM, Jaddou H, Jafar T, Jamrozik K, Janszky I, Jasienska G, Jelaković A, Jelaković B, Jennings G, Jeong SL, Jiang CQ, Joffres M, Johansson M, Jokelainen JJ, Jonas JB, Jørgensen T, Joshi P, Jóźwiak J, Juolevi A, Jurak G, Jureša V, Kaaks R, Kafatos A, Kajantie EO, Kalter-Leibovici O, Kamaruddin NA, Karki KB, Kasaeian A, Katz J, Kauhanen J, Kaur P, Kavousi M, Kazakbaeva G, Keil U, Boker LK, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Kelishadi R, Kemper HCG, Kengne AP, Kerimkulova A, Kersting M, Key T, Khader YS, Khalili D, Khang YH, Khateeb M, Khaw KT, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Kiechl S, Killewo J, Kim J, Kim YY, Klumbiene J, Knoflach M, Kolle E, Kolsteren P, Korrovits P, Koskinen S, Kouda K, Kowlessur S, Koziel S, Kriemler S, Kristensen PL, Krokstad S, Kromhout D, Kruger HS, Kubinova R, Kuciene R, Kuh D, Kujala UM, Kulaga Z, Krishna Kumar R, Kurjata P, Kusuma YS, Kuulasmaa K, Kyobutungi C, Laatikainen T, Lachat C, Lam TH, Landrove O, Lanska V, Lappas G, Larijani B, Laugsand LE, Laxmaiah A, Le Nguyen Bao K, Le TD, Leclercq C, Lee J, Lee J, Lehtimäki T, León-Muñoz LM, Levitt NS, Li Y, Lilly CL, Lim WY, Lima-Costa MF, Lin HH, Lin X, Lind L, Linneberg A, Lissner L, Litwin M, Liu J, Lorbeer R, Lotufo PA, Lozano JE, Luksiene D, Lundqvist A, Lunet N, Lytsy P, Ma G, Ma J, Machado-Coelho GLL, Machi S, Maggi S, Magliano DJ, Magriplis E, Majer M, Makdisse M, Malekzadeh R, Malhotra R, Mallikharjuna Rao K, Malyutina S, Manios Y, Mann JI, Manzato E, Margozzini P, Marques-Vidal P, Marques LP, Marrugat J, Martorell R, Mathiesen EB, Matijasevich A, Matsha TE, Mbanya JCN, Mc Donald Posso AJ, McFarlane SR, McGarvey ST, McLachlan S, McLean RM, McLean SB, McNulty BA, Mediene-Benchekor S, Medzioniene J, Meirhaeghe A, Meisinger C, Menezes AMB, Menon GR, Meshram II, Metspalu A, Meyer HE, Mi J, Mikkel K, Miller JC, Minderico CS, Francisco J, Miranda JJ, Mirrakhimov E, Mišigoj-Durakovic M, Modesti PA, Mohamed MK, Mohammad K, Mohammadifard N, Mohan V, Mohanna S, Mohd Yusoff MF, Møllehave LT, Møller NC, Molnár D, Momenan A, Mondo CK, Monyeki KDK, Moon JS, Moreira LB, Morejon A, Moreno LA, Morgan K, Moschonis G, Mossakowska M, Mostafa A, Mota J, Esmaeel Motlagh M, Motta J, Msyamboza KP, Mu TT, Muiesan ML, Müller-Nurasyid M, Murphy N, Mursu J, Musil V, Nabipour I, Nagel G, Naidu BM, Nakamura H, Námešná J, Nang EEK, Nangia VB, Narake S, Nauck M, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Ndiaye NC, Neal WA, Nenko I, Neovius M, Nervi F, Neuhauser HK, Nguyen CT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen QN, Nguyen QV, Nieto-Martínez RE, Niiranen TJ, Ning G, Ninomiya T, Nishtar S, Noale M, Noboa OA, Noorbala AA, Norat T, Noto D, Al Nsour M, O'Reilly D, Oda E, Oehlers G, Oh K, Ohara K, Olinto MTA, Oliveira IO, Omar MA, Onat A, Ong SK, Ono LM, Ordunez P, Ornelas R, Osmond C, Ostojic SM, Ostovar A, Otero JA, Overvad K, Owusu-Dabo E, Paccaud FM, Padez C, Pahomova E, Pajak A, Palli D, Palmieri L, Pan WH, Panda-Jonas S, Panza F, Papandreou D, Park SW, Parnell WR, Parsaeian M, Patel ND, Pecin I, Pednekar MS, Peer N, Peeters PH, Peixoto SV, Peltonen M, Pereira AC, Peters A, Petersmann A, Petkeviciene J, Peykari N, Pham ST, Pigeot I, Pikhart H, Pilav A, Pilotto L, Pitakaka F, Piwonska A, Plans-Rubió P, Polašek O, Porta M, Portegies MLP, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Pradeepa R, Prashant M, Price JF, Puder JJ, Puiu M, Punab M, Qasrawi RF, Qorbani M, Bao TQ, Radic I, Radisauskas R, Rahman M, Raitakari O, Raj M, Ramachandra Rao S, Ramachandran A, Ramos E, Rampal L, Rampal S, Rangel Reina DA, Redon J, Reganit PFM, Ribeiro R, Riboli E, Rigo F, Rinke de Wit TF, Ritti-Dias RM, Robinson SM, Robitaille C, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez M, Rodríguez-Villamizar LA, Rojas-Martinez R, Romaguera D, Ronkainen K, Rosengren A, Roy JGR, Rubinstein A, Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt B, Rutkowski M, Sabanayagam C, Sachdev HS, Saidi O, Sakarya S, Salanave B, Salazar Martinez E, Salmerón D, Salomaa V, Salonen JT, Salvetti M, Sánchez-Abanto J, Sans S, Santos DA, Santos IS, Nunes Dos Santos R, Santos R, Saramies JL, Sardinha LB, Sarganas G, Sarrafzadegan N, Saum KU, Savva S, Scazufca M, Schargrodsky H, Schipf S, Schmidt CO, Schöttker B, Schultsz C, Schutte AE, Sein AA, Sen A, Senbanjo IO, Sepanlou SG, Sharma SK, Shaw JE, Shibuya K, Shin DW, Shin Y, Si-Ramlee K, Siantar R, Sibai AM, Santos Silva DA, Simon M, Simons J, Simons LA, Sjöström M, Skovbjerg S, Slowikowska-Hilczer J, Slusarczyk P, Smeeth L, Smith MC, Snijder MB, So HK, Sobngwi E, Söderberg S, Solfrizzi V, Sonestedt E, Song Y, Sørensen TIA, Soric M, Jérome CS, Soumare A, Staessen JA, Starc G, Stathopoulou MG, Stavreski B, Steene-Johannessen J, Stehle P, Stein AD, Stergiou GS, Stessman J, Stieber J, Stöckl D, Stocks T, Stokwiszewski J, Stronks K, Strufaldi MW, Sun CA, Sundström J, Sung YT, Suriyawongpaisal P, Sy RG, Shyong Tai E, Tammesoo ML, Tamosiunas A, Tan EJ, Tang X, Tanser F, Tao Y, Tarawneh MR, Tarqui-Mamani CB, Tautu OF, Taylor A, Theobald H, Theodoridis X, Thijs L, Thuesen BH, Tjonneland A, Tolonen HK, Tolstrup JS, Topbas M, Topór-Madry R, Tormo MJ, Torrent M, Traissac P, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A, Trinh OTH, Trivedi A, Tshepo L, Tulloch-Reid MK, Tullu F, Tuomainen TP, Tuomilehto J, Turley ML, Tynelius P, Tzourio C, Ueda P, Ugel EE, Ulmer H, Uusitalo HMT, Valdivia G, Valvi D, van der Schouw YT, Van Herck K, Van Minh H, van Rossem L, Van Schoor NM, van Valkengoed IGM, Vanderschueren D, Vanuzzo D, Vatten L, Vega T, Velasquez-Melendez G, Veronesi G, Monique Verschuren WM, Verstraeten R, Victora CG, Viet L, Viikari-Juntura E, Vineis P, Vioque J, Virtanen JK, Visvikis-Siest S, Viswanathan B, Vlasoff T, Vollenweider P, Voutilainen S, Wade AN, Wagner A, Walton J, Wan Bebakar WM, Wan Mohamud WN, Wanderley RS Jr., Wang MD, Wang Q, Wang YX, Wang YW, Wannamethee SG, Wareham N, Wedderkopp N, Weerasekera D, Whincup PH, Widhalm K, Widyahening IS, Wiecek A, Wijga AH, Wilks RJ, Willeit J, Willeit P, Williams EA, Wilsgaard T, Wojtyniak B, Wong-McClure RA, Wong JYY, Wong TY, Woo J, Woodward M, Giwercman Wu A, Wu FC, Wu S, Xu H, Yan W, Yang X, Ye X, Yiallouros PK, Yoshihara A, Younger-Coleman NO, Yusoff AF, Zainuddin AA, Zambon S, Zampelas A, Zdrojewski T, Zeng Y, Zhao D, Zhao W, Zheng W, Zheng Y, Zhu D, Zhussupov B, Zimmermann E, Cisneros JZ.

Abstract

Background:

Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure.

Methods:

We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure.

Results:

In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association.

Conclusions:

Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

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