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J Hazard Mater. 2018 Jun 15;352:57-69. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.03.021. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Mussel-inspired functionalization of electrochemically exfoliated graphene: Based on self-polymerization of dopamine and its suppression effect on the fire hazards and smoke toxicity of thermoplastic polyurethane.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026, PR China.
2
Institute of Environmental Materials and Applications, College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, 310018 Hangzhou, China.
3
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, PR China.
4
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, PR China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026, PR China. Electronic address: wxcmx@ustc.edu.cn.
6
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026, PR China. Electronic address: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn.

Abstract

The suppression effect of graphene in the fire hazards and smoke toxicity of polymer composites has been seriously limited by both mass production and weak interfacial interaction. Though the electrochemical preparation provides an available approach for mass production, exfoliated graphene could not strongly bond with polar polymer chains. Herein, mussel-inspired functionalization of electrochemically exfoliated graphene was successfully processed and added into polar thermoplastic polyurethane matrix (TPU). As confirmed by SEM patterns of fracture surface, functionalized graphene possessing abundant hydroxyl could constitute a forceful chains interaction with TPU. By the incorporation of 2.0 wt % f-GNS, peak heat release rate (pHRR), total heat release (THR), specific extinction area (SEA), as well as smoke produce rate (SPR) of TPU composites were approximately decreased by 59.4%, 27.1%, 31.9%, and 26.7%, respectively. A probable mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized: well-dispersed f-GNS constituted tortuous path and hindered the exchange process of degradation product with barrier function. Large quantities of degradation product gathered round f-GNS and reacted with flame retardant to produce the cross-linked and high-degree graphited residual char. The simple functionalization for electrochemically exfoliated graphene impels the application of graphene in the fields of flame retardant composites.

KEYWORDS:

CO release; Electrochemical preparation of graphene; Fire safety; Self-polymerization of polydopamine; Smoke toxicity

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