Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Pollut. 2018 Jul;238:248-254. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.089. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Melamine and its derivatives in dog and cat urine: An exposure assessment study.

Author information

1
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY, 12201-0509, United States.
2
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY, 12201-0509, United States; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, 12201-0509, United States; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: Kurunthachalam.Kannan@health.ny.gov.

Abstract

Melamine is a nitrogen-containing organic compound that is used in a wide range of products, including paints, plastics, and paper, as a flame retardant. A few studies have reported the occurrence of melamine and its derivatives in pet food, following a number of deaths of cats and dogs from kidney failure in 2007, which was attributed to melamine contamination in ingredients used in pet food. Nevertheless, studies that report the occurrence of melamine and its derivatives in pet urine are scarce. In this study, we measured melamine and its derivatives (i.e., ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid) in dog (n = 30) and cat (n = 30) urine collected from Albany, New York, USA, during March through July 2017. The mean (±SD) concentrations of melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid in dog urine were 21.1 ± 51.2, 2.3 ± 3.8, 9.9 ± 1 0.4, and 79.0 ± 105 ng/mL, respectively; the corresponding concentrations in cats were 21.4 ± 26.1, 1.2 ± 2.5, 6.1 ± 3.9, and 105 ± 94.6 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in urinary concentrations of melamine derivatives between cats and dogs. Age and gender were important determinants of the concentrations of the target chemicals in cats and dogs. Cumulative daily intake of melamine and its derivatives was calculated on the basis of urinary concentrations and was found to be 10-500-fold below the tolerable daily intake.

KEYWORDS:

Cat urine; Cyanuric acid; Dog urine; Melamine; Pet exposure

PMID:
29567446
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.089
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center