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Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2018 Dec;44(6):811-818. doi: 10.1007/s00068-018-0937-4. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Should pre-hospital resuscitative thoracotomy be reserved only for penetrating chest trauma?

Author information

1
Emergency General Surgery and Trauma Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool, L9 7AL, UK. dr.e.nevins@gmail.com.
2
University of Liverpool Medical School, Liverpool, UK.
3
Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
4
Emergency General Surgery and Trauma Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool, L9 7AL, UK.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The indications for pre-hospital resuscitative thoracotomy (PHRT) remain undefined. The aim of this paper is to explore the variation in practice for PHRT in the UK, and review the published literature.

METHODS:

MEDLINE and PUBMED search engines were used to identify all relevant articles and 22 UK Air Ambulance Services were sent an electronic questionnaire to assess their PHRT practice.

RESULTS:

Four European publications report PHRT survival rates of 9.7, 18.3, 10.3 and 3.0% in 31, 71, 39 and 33 patients, respectively. All patients sustained penetrating chest injury. Six case reports also detail survivors of PHRT, again all had sustained penetrating thoracic injury. One Japanese paper presents 34 cases of PHRT following blunt trauma, of which 26.4% survived to the intensive therapy unit but none survived to discharge. A UK population reports a single survivor of PHRT following blunt trauma but the case details remain unpublished. Ten (45%) air ambulance services responded, each service reported different indications for PHRT. All perform PHRT for penetrating chest trauma, however, length of allowed pre-procedure down time varied, ranging from 10 to 20 min. Seventy percent perform PHRT for blunt traumatic cardiac arrest, a procedure which is likely to require aggressive concurrent circulatory support, despite this only 5/10 services carry pre-hospital blood products.

CONCLUSIONS:

Current indications for PHRT vary amongst different geographical locations, across the UK, and worldwide. Survivors are likely to have sustained penetrating chest injury with short down time. There is only one published survivor of PHRT following blunt trauma, despite this, PHRT is still being performed in the UK for this indication.

KEYWORDS:

Blunt chest trauma; Penetrating chest trauma; Pre-hospital; Resuscitative thoracotomy; Traumatic cardiac arrest

PMID:
29564472
DOI:
10.1007/s00068-018-0937-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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