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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019 Sep;32(17):2783-2789. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1449201. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Relationship between advanced glycation end products and gestational diabetes mellitus.

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a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Peking University First Hospital , Beijing , China.
b Peking University First Hospital , Obstetrics and Gynecology , Beijing , China.


Objective: To investigate the levels of and dynamic changes of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in maternal plasma during pregnancy and explore the association between these levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: This study recruited 90 GDM women and 90 healthy pregnant controls. The women received prenatal care and were hospitalized for delivery in Peking University First Hospital in China between October 2015 and April 2016. The patients were recruited and provided blood samples during gestational weeks 24-29. The levels of AGEs, TNF-α, hs-CRP, plasma glucose, and FINS and lipid profiles were measured, and HOMA-IR was calculated. New blood samples were collected and AGE was measured again in the two groups at 33-41 weeks of gestation to identify its dynamic changes. Results: The levels of AGEs were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the NGT group at both 24-29 weeks (473.65 ± 105.32 versus 324.36 ± 57.86 ng/L; p < .001) and 33-41 weeks (533.47 ± 146.95 versus 315.50 ± 77.79 ng/L; p < .001), and plasma levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the NGT group (282.58 ± 45.85 versus 177.54 ± 35.14 pg/mL; 1.11 ± 0.25 versus 0.6 ± 0.19 µg/mL; p < .001), even after adjusting for other confounding factors, AGE levels were positively correlated with the levels of 2hPG (p = .003), TNF-α (p = .005), and hs-CRP (p < .001). A logistic regression analysis showed that AGE (OR = 1.037, 95%CI: 1.017 ∼ 1.058) and TNF-α (OR = 1.115, 95%CI: 1.048 ∼ 1.186) levels were independent risk factors for GDM. In the GDM group, the concentration of AGEs was significantly higher at 33-41 weeks than at 24-29 weeks (p = .001). In the NGT group, there was no significant change in the concentration of AGEs between the two gestational periods (p = .388). Conclusions: Plasma levels of AGEs are associated with GDM. During pregnancy, the changes observed in the levels of AGEs were different between GDM and normal pregnancies.


AGEs; Gestational diabetes mellitus; TNF-α; dynamic change; hs-CRP

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