Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 Mar 20;13(3):e0193638. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193638. eCollection 2018.

Cognitive predictors of cervical cancer screening's stages of change among sample of Iranian women health volunteers: A path analysis.

Author information

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Birjand University of Medical sciences, Birjand, Iran.



The uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women is low, resulting in a high rate of casualties from cervical cancer in Iran. The present study used the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Stages of Change theory as theoretical frameworks for understanding the predictors of the behaviour of Iranian Women Health Volunteers (WHVs) with respect to cervical cancer screening.


Data from the 1,253 WHVs were analyzed using path analysis to assess the effects of cognitive factors (including knowledge, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, perceived severity of cervical cancer, Pap smear benefits, Pap smear barriers, and Pap smear self-efficacy) on the stages of change for Pap-smear behaviour.


The majority of the respondents (71.5%) reported that they had not taken previous Pap smear tests; only 3% had received a regular Pap test. The perceived benefits to cervical cancer screening, the perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening, and the perceived self-efficacy to perform cervical cancer screening emerged as the predictors of cervical cancer screening's stages of change; perceived threat to cervical cancer, however, did not.


Uptake of regular cervical screening for Iranian WHVs was very low. Different interventions, such as media campaigns and educational interventions could provide an opportunity to improve women's knowledge on cervical cancer and Pap test benefits, address any misconceptions or fears about the procedure of the Pap test, and finally increase the cervical screening uptake by Iranian women.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center