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Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2018 Mar 20. doi: 10.1007/82_2018_86. [Epub ahead of print]

Breast Organotypic Cancer Models.

Author information

1
Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Centro de Investigación Biomédica del Noreste, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. carranza60@yahoo.com.mx.
2
Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad # 34, División de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.
3
Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Centro de Investigación Biomédica del Noreste, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.
4
Departamento de Química Analítica, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, Mexico.
5
Departamento de Biología Celular y Ultraestructura, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico.

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer type diagnosed in women, it represents a critical public health problem worldwide, with 1,671,149 estimated new cases and nearly 571,000 related deaths. Research on breast cancer has mainly been conducted using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and animal models. The usefulness of these models is reflected in the vast knowledge accumulated over the past decades. However, considering that animal models are three-dimensional (3D) in nature, the validity of the studies using 2D cell cultures has recently been questioned. Although animal models are important in cancer research, ethical questions arise about their use and usefulness as there is no clear predictivity of human disease outcome and they are very expensive and take too much time to obtain results. The poor performance or failure of most cancer drugs suggests that preclinical research on cancer has been based on an over-dependence on inadequate animal models. For these reasons, in the last few years development of alternative models has been prioritized to study human breast cancer behavior, while maintaining a 3D microenvironment, and to reduce the number of experiments conducted in animals. One way to achieve this is using organotypic cultures, which are being more frequently explored in cancer research because they mimic tissue architecture in vivo. These characteristics make organotypic cultures a valuable tool in cancer research as an alternative to replace animal models and for predicting risk assessment in humans. This chapter describes the cultures of multicellular spheroids, organoids, 3D bioreactors, and tumor slices, which are the most widely used organotypic models in breast cancer research.

PMID:
29556825
DOI:
10.1007/82_2018_86

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