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Leukemia. 2018 May;32(5):1116-1123. doi: 10.1038/s41375-018-0087-z. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells as a result of innate immunity-mediated sterile inflammation in the bone marrow microenvironment-the involvement of extracellular nucleotides and purinergic signaling.

Author information

1
Stem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. mzrata01@louisville.edu.
2
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Center for Preclinical Research and Technology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland. mzrata01@louisville.edu.
3
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Center for Preclinical Research and Technology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.
4
Stem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.
5
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Abstract

Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) circulate in peripheral blood (PB) under normal conditions and their number increases in response to stress, inflammation, tissue/organ injury, and may increase up to 100-fold after administration of mobilization-inducing drugs. Mounting evidence suggests that mobilizing agent-induced mobilization of HSPCs from bone marrow into PB is a result of innate immunity-mediated sterile inflammation in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. A critical initiating role in this process is played by tissue/organ injury-mediated or pharmacologically induced release from bone marrow-residing granulocytes and monocytes of (i) danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), (ii) reactive oxygen species (ROS), and (iii) proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. All these factors together trigger activation of the complement and coagulation cascades, both of which orchestrate egress of HSPCs into BM sinusoids and lymphatics. Recent evidence also indicates that, in addition to attenuation of the SDF-1-CXCR4 and VLA-4-VCAM-1 retention axes in the BM microenvironment and the presence of a mobilization-directing phosphosphingolipid gradient in PB, an important role in the mobilization process is played by extracellular nucleotides and purinergic signaling. In particular, a new finding by our laboratory is that, while extracellular ATP promotes mobilization of HSPCs, its derivative, adenosine, has the opposite (inhibitory) effect.

PMID:
29556022
PMCID:
PMC5940655
DOI:
10.1038/s41375-018-0087-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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