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Nat Immunol. 2018 Apr;19(4):375-385. doi: 10.1038/s41590-018-0067-5. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Environmental allergens induce allergic inflammation through proteolytic maturation of IL-33.

Author information

1
Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France. corinne.cayrol@ipbs.fr.
2
Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France.
3
Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France. jean-philippe.girard@ipbs.fr.

Abstract

Allergic inflammation has crucial roles in allergic diseases such as asthma. It is therefore important to understand why and how the immune system responds to allergens. Here we found that full-length interleukin 33 (IL-33FL), an alarmin cytokine with critical roles in type 2 immunity and asthma, functioned as a protease sensor that detected proteolytic activities associated with various environmental allergens across four kingdoms, including fungi, house dust mites, bacteria and pollens. When exposed to allergen proteases, IL-33FL was rapidly cleaved in its central 'sensor' domain, which led to activation of the production of type 2 cytokines in group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Preventing cleavage of IL-33FL reduced allergic airway inflammation. Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism for the rapid induction of allergic type 2 inflammation following allergen exposure, with important implications for allergic diseases.

PMID:
29556000
DOI:
10.1038/s41590-018-0067-5

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