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J Med Chem. 2018 May 10;61(9):3845-3854. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00218. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

A Synthetic Dual Drug Sideromycin Induces Gram-Negative Bacteria To Commit Suicide with a Gram-Positive Antibiotic.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of Notre Dame , Notre Dame , Indiana 46556 , United States.


Many antibiotics lack activity against Gram-negative bacteria because they cannot permeate the outer membrane or suffer from efflux and, in the case of β-lactams, are degraded by β-lactamases. Herein, we describe the synthesis and studies of a dual drug conjugate (1) of a siderophore linked to a cephalosporin with an attached oxazolidinone. The cephalosporin component of 1 is rapidly hydrolyzed by purified ADC-1 β-lactamase to release the oxazolidinone. Conjugate 1 is active against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii as well as strains producing large amounts of ADC-1 β-lactamase. Overall, the results are consistent with siderophore-mediated active uptake, inherent activity of the delivered dual drug, and in the presence of β-lactamases, intracellular release of the oxazolidinone upon cleavage of the cephalosporin to allow the freed oxazolidinone to inactivate its target. The ultimate result demonstrates that Gram-positive oxazolidinone antibiotics can be made to be effective against Gram-negative bacteria by β-lactamase triggered release.

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