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Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 2;67(2):211-217. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy079.

Prevalence and Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Among Men and Women in the United States.

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Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Maryland.
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Maryland.
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland.



The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined.


Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus. Weighted adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression.


TV infection prevalence was 0.5% and 1.8% among males and females, respectively. TV infection prevalence was 4.2% among black males, 8.9% among black females, and 0.03% and 0.8%, respectively, among males and females of other races/ethnicities. TV infection prevalence (aPR [95% confidence interval]) was positively associated with female sex (6.1 [3.3-11.3]), black race (vs other races/ethnicities; 7.9 [3.9-16.1]), older age (vs 18-24 years; 3.0 [1.2-7.1] for 25- to 39-year-olds and 3.5 [1.3-9.4] for 40- to 59-year-olds), having less than a high school education (vs completing high school or more; 2.0 [1.0-4.1]), being below the poverty level (vs at or above the poverty level; 4.0 [2.1-7.7]), and having ≥2 sexual partners in the past year (vs 0-1 sexual partners; 3.6 [2.0-6.6]). There were no TV and CT coinfections. Genital HPV detection was not independently associated with TV infection. Among persons aged 18-39 years, there was a significant racial disparity in all sexually transmitted infections examined, and this disparity was greatest for TV infection.


There is a high and disproportionate burden of urinary TV infection in the adult civilian, noninstitutionalized black population in the United States that warrants intervention.

[Available on 2019-07-02]

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