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Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 2;67(2):211-217. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy079.

Prevalence and Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Among Men and Women in the United States.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Maryland.
2
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Maryland.
3
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland.

Abstract

Background:

The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined.

Methods:

Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus. Weighted adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression.

Results:

TV infection prevalence was 0.5% and 1.8% among males and females, respectively. TV infection prevalence was 4.2% among black males, 8.9% among black females, and 0.03% and 0.8%, respectively, among males and females of other races/ethnicities. TV infection prevalence (aPR [95% confidence interval]) was positively associated with female sex (6.1 [3.3-11.3]), black race (vs other races/ethnicities; 7.9 [3.9-16.1]), older age (vs 18-24 years; 3.0 [1.2-7.1] for 25- to 39-year-olds and 3.5 [1.3-9.4] for 40- to 59-year-olds), having less than a high school education (vs completing high school or more; 2.0 [1.0-4.1]), being below the poverty level (vs at or above the poverty level; 4.0 [2.1-7.7]), and having ≥2 sexual partners in the past year (vs 0-1 sexual partners; 3.6 [2.0-6.6]). There were no TV and CT coinfections. Genital HPV detection was not independently associated with TV infection. Among persons aged 18-39 years, there was a significant racial disparity in all sexually transmitted infections examined, and this disparity was greatest for TV infection.

Conclusions:

There is a high and disproportionate burden of urinary TV infection in the adult civilian, noninstitutionalized black population in the United States that warrants intervention.

PMID:
29554238
PMCID:
PMC6031067
[Available on 2019-07-02]
DOI:
10.1093/cid/ciy079

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