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Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;45(6):2293-2304. doi: 10.1159/000488176. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Gum Acacia Improves Renal Function and Ameliorates Systemic Inflammation, Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats with Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease.

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Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khoudh, Oman.
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.



The effect of treatment with gum acacia (GA), a prebiotic shown previously to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), in diabetic and non - diabetic rats with adenine - induced CKD has been investigated using several conventional and novel physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters.


Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic and non - diabetic rats were randomly divided into several groups, and given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w, for five weeks) to induce CKD. Some of these groups were also concomitantly treated orally with GA in the drinking water (15% w/w).


Rats fed adenine alone exhibited physiological (decreased body weight, increased food and water intake and urine output), biochemical (increase in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, plasma urea and, creatinine, indoxyl sulfate and phosphorus), inflammatory biomarkers (increased in neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, transforming growth factor beta -1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, cystatin C and interleukin-1β), oxidative biomarkers (8-isoprostane, 8 -hydroxy -2-deoxy guanosine), nitrosative stress biomarkers (nitrite and nitrate) and histopathological (increase in tubular necrosis and fibrosis) signs of CKD. STZ - induced diabetes alone worsened most of the renal function tests measured. Administration of adenine in STZ - diabetic rats further worsened the renal damage induced by adenine alone. GA significantly ameliorated the renal actions of adenine and STZ, given either singly or in combination, especially with regards to the histopathological damage.


GA is a useful dietary agent in attenuating the progression of CKD in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.


Adenine; Chronic kidney disease; Diabetes; Gum acacia; Rats

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