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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987 Jul;10(1):115-24.

Echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve area in elderly patients with aortic stenosis and of changes in valve area after percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty.


Echocardiographic studies, adequate for analysis of aortic valve area using the continuity equation, were obtained in 31 patients aged greater than or equal to 60 years who were undergoing catheterization for assessment of suspected aortic stenosis. Catheterization-determined aortic valve area was 0.74 +/- 0.30 cm2 (mean +/- SD) and Doppler-determined aortic valve areas were 0.68 +/- 0.27 and 0.65 +/- 0.27 cm2, depending on whether peak or mean velocities, respectively, were entered into the continuity equation. There were significant correlations between both of the Doppler-derived and the catheterization-determined aortic valve areas (r = 0.86, p less than 0.001 for both the continuity equation employing peak velocities and the continuity equation employing mean velocities) which were demonstrated to be linear by F test (catheterization area = -0.03 + 1.13 X Doppler area determined using peak velocities, SEE = 0.163 cm2, p less than 0.001; and catheterization area = -0.02 + 1.16 X Doppler area determined using mean velocities, SEE = 0.165 cm2, p less than 0.001). Both sets of correlations had linear regression parameters meeting the conditions for identity. Significant linear correlations were also noted between the non-invasive measurements of aortic valve excursion, ventricular ejection time, time to one-half carotid upstroke, maximal Doppler velocity and maximal Doppler gradient and catheterization aortic valve area, but the correlations were less tight than those between valve areas determined by catheterization and by Doppler continuity equation. Ten of the patients underwent percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty. There were significant linear correlations between aortic valve areas determined by Doppler and catheterization methods both before valvuloplasty (r = 0.77, p = 0.01; p less than 0.001 by F test, SEE = 0.134 cm2) and after valvuloplasty (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01; p = 0.0001 by F test, SEE = 0.161 cm2). Linear regression parameters met the conditions for identity. There was also a significant linear correlation between catheterization and Doppler measurements of absolute change in aortic valve area (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01; p less than 0.001 by F test, SEE = 0.11 cm2). Aortic valve area can be determined reliably by continuity equation in elderly patients. In addition, results of balloon valvuloplasty, measured by changes in catheterization-determined aortic valve area, are accurately reflected by changes in aortic valve area determined using the continuity equation.

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