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Skelet Muscle. 2018 Mar 17;8(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s13395-018-0157-y.

Role of Parkin and endurance training on mitochondrial turnover in skeletal muscle.

Author information

1
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada.
2
Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada.
3
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada. dhood@yorku.ca.
4
Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada. dhood@yorku.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Parkin is a ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. This process is termed mitophagy and can assist in mitochondrial quality control. Endurance training can produce adaptations in skeletal muscle toward a more oxidative phenotype, an outcome of enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It remains unknown whether Parkin-mediated mitophagy is involved in training-induced increases in mitochondrial content and function. Our purpose was to determine a role for Parkin in maintaining mitochondrial turnover in muscle, and its requirement in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance exercise training.

METHODS:

Wild-type and Parkin knockout (KO) mice were trained for 6 weeks and then treated with colchicine or vehicle to evaluate the role of Parkin in mediating changes in mitochondrial content, function and acute exercise-induced mitophagy flux.

RESULTS:

Our results indicate that Parkin is required for the basal maintenance of mitochondrial function. The absence of Parkin did not significantly alter mitophagy basally; however, acute exercise produced an elevation in mitophagy flux, a response that was Parkin-dependent. Mitochondrial content was increased following training in both genotypes, but this occurred without an induction of PGC-1α signaling in KO animals. Interestingly, the increased muscle mitochondrial content in response to training did not influence basal mitophagy flux, despite an enhanced expression and localization of Parkin to mitochondria in WT animals. Furthermore, exercise-induced mitophagy flux was attenuated with training in WT animals, suggesting a lower rate of mitochondrial degradation resulting from improved organelle quality with training. In contrast, training led to a higher mitochondrial content, but with persistent dysfunction, in KO animals. Thus, the lack of a rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction with training in the absence of Parkin is the likely reason for the impaired training-induced attenuation of mitophagy flux compared to WT animals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study demonstrates that Parkin is required for exercise-induced mitophagy flux. Exercise-induced mitophagy is reduced with training in muscle, likely due to attenuated signaling consequent to increased mitochondrial content and quality. Our data suggest that Parkin is essential for the maintenance of basal mitochondrial function, as well as for the accumulation of normally functioning mitochondria as a result of training adaptations in muscle.

KEYWORDS:

Endurance training; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Mitophagy flux; PARIS; PGC-1α

PMID:
29549884
PMCID:
PMC5857114
DOI:
10.1186/s13395-018-0157-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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