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Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2018 Mar 17;20(4):8. doi: 10.1007/s11940-018-0494-5.

The Evidence for Dietary Interventions and Nutritional Supplements as Treatment Options in Multiple Sclerosis: a Review.

Author information

1
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 733 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. lmische1@jhmi.edu.
2
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS).

RECENT FINDINGS:

There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive. With regard to nutritional supplements, pilot data show a possible benefit of biotin with respect to disability worsening in people with progressive MS (PMS). The best designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PUFA supplementation have not shown significant impact, but several weaker RCTs have. Many other nutritional supplements have been tested, including several anti-oxidants. While some early studies show positive results, no result has been definitive. Unfortunately, there is no strong evidence for a direct benefit of any given dietary intervention on MS risk or prognosis. However, due to its relationship with vascular co-morbidities, the Mediterranean diet has the strongest rationale for employment in PwMS. Higher-quality clinical trials are needed to ascertain the possible benefits of nutritional supplements.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary interventions; Multiple sclerosis; Nutritional supplements

PMID:
29549521
DOI:
10.1007/s11940-018-0494-5

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