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Respir Investig. 2018 Mar;56(2):158-165. doi: 10.1016/j.resinv.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Recent trends in practice patterns and impact of corticosteroid use on pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public health, CA, USA; Department of Social Medicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: sunning_dale@yahoo.co.jp.
2
Department of Health Services Research, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Social Medicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
4
Office for infectious Control, National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan.
5
Office for infectious Control, National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee, USA.
6
Department of General Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
7
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
8
Department of Health Policy and Informatics, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia/bronchitis in children, and macrolide-resistant strains are increasing in East Asian countries. Recent practice patterns, especially for antibiotic selection, and benefits of corticosteroid treatment in pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections remain unclear.

METHODS:

Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database, we analyzed recent trends in antibiotic selection and corticosteroid use for pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections, using multivariable mixed effects logistic regressions. In addition, we compared hospital utilization and readmission between children who received corticosteroids and those who did not, using propensity-score matching and instrumental variable analyses.

RESULTS:

Overall, 51,633 inpatients were identified. From 2010 to 2014, the use of macrolides and lincosamides decreased from 62.8% to 50.6% and from 25.6% to 13.7% respectively (Ptrend < 0.001), whereas fluoroquinolone use increased from 4.6% to 22.6% (Ptrend < 0.001). Tetracycline use did not demonstrate a significant change in trend. Propensity score matching analysis showed that hospital stay in the steroid group was 0.90 days longer than in the non-steroid group (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.96). Total hospitalization cost was higher in the steroid compared to the non-steroid group (57.6 US dollars; 95% CI, 48.8-66.8). A significant difference in 30-day readmission risk was observed between the steroid (1.6%) and non-steroid (1.2%) groups (risk difference 0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7%). Similar results were observed on instrumental variable analyses.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increasing trends in fluoroquinolone use and decreasing trends in macrolide use were observed. Our study did not prove the benefits of corticosteroid use. Further studies are required to confirm the clinical benefits of corticosteroid treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Corticosteroids; Mycoplasma Pneumoniae; Propensity score matching

PMID:
29548654
DOI:
10.1016/j.resinv.2017.11.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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