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Curr Med Chem. 2018 Mar 16. doi: 10.2174/0929867325666180316121015. [Epub ahead of print]

The role of (modified) lipoproteins in vascular function: a duet between monocytes and the endothelium.

Author information

1
Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam. Netherlands.
2
Department of Experimental Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam. Netherlands.
3
Academic Medical Center, Departments of Experimental Vascular Medicine and Vascular Medicine; Room G1-115 Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam. Netherlands.

Abstract

Over the last century, many studies have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to atherosclerosis. Thus, for these CVD patients, LDL lowering agents are commonly used in the clinic to reduce the risk for CVD. LDL, upon modification, will develop distinct inflammatory and pro-atherogenic potential, leading to impaired endothelial behavior and subsequent increased foam cell formation. LDL can also directly affect circulating monocyte composition, rendering them in a more favorable position to migrate and accumulate in the subendothelial space. It has become apparent that other lipoprotein particles, such as triglyceride-rich remnants (TRL) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] may also impact on atherogenic pathways. Evidence is accumulating that Lp(a) can promote peripheral monocyte activation, leading to increased transmigration capacity through the endothelium. Similarly, remnant cholesterol has been identified to play a key role in endothelial dysfunction and monocyte behavior. In this review, we will discuss recent developments in understanding the role of different lipoproteins in the context of inflammation at both the monocyte and the level of the endothelial cell.

KEYWORDS:

Lp(a); apoB; atherogenesis; endothelial cells; lipoproteins; monocytes; oxidized phospholipids; remnants

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