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Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2018 Autumn;30(3):318-324. doi: 10.1053/j.semtcvs.2018.03.004. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Impact of Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Need for Diaphragm Plication Following Surgery for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital/Stanford University, Stanford, California.
2
Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital/Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address: mainwaring@stanford.edu.
3
Division of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital/Stanford University, Stanford, California.
4
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital/Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Abstract

Injury to the phrenic nerves may occur during surgery for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA-VSD and MAPCAs). These patients may develop respiratory failure and require diaphragm plication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of phrenic nerve palsy on recovery following surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs. Between 2007 and 2016, approximately 500 patients underwent surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs at our institution. Twenty-four patients (4.8%) subsequently had evidence of new phrenic nerve palsy. Sixteen patients were undergoing their first surgical procedure, whereas 8 were undergoing reoperations. All 24 patients underwent diaphragm plication. A cohort of matched controls was identified based on identical diagnosis and procedures but did not sustain a phrenic nerve palsy. Eighteen of the 24 patients (75%) had clinical improvement following diaphragm plication as evidenced by the ability to undergo successful extubation (5 ± 2 days), transition out of the intensive care unit (32 ± 16 days), and discharge from the hospital (42 ± 19 days). In contrast, there were 6 patients (25%) who did not demonstrate a temporal improvement following diaphragm plication, as evidenced by intervals of 61 ± 38, 106 ± 45, and 108 ± 46 days, respectively (P < 0.05 for all 3 comparisons). The 6 patients who failed to improve following diaphragm plication had a significantly greater number of comorbidities compared to the 18 patients who demonstrated improvement (2.2 vs 0.6 per patient, P < 0.05). When compared with the control group, patients who improved following diaphragm plication spent an additional 22 days and patients who failed to improve an additional 90 days in the hospital. The data demonstrate a bifurcation of clinical outcome in patients undergoing diaphragm plication following surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs. This bifurcation appears to be linked to the presence or absence of other comorbidities.

KEYWORDS:

congenital heart disease; diaphragm; outcomes; pulmonary artery

PMID:
29545034
DOI:
10.1053/j.semtcvs.2018.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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