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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 May;24 Suppl 1:e1-e38. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.01.002. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Diagnosis and management of Aspergillus diseases: executive summary of the 2017 ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guideline.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Haematology and Oncology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
2
Infectious Diseases Unit, University Hospital Madrid, Madrid, Spain; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
4
The National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Mycology Reference Centre Manchester, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Manchester, UK; The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
5
Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Centre for Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Children's Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
7
Institute of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
8
Infectious Diseases Clinic, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG).
9
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias - CIBERES (CB06/06/0058), Madrid, Spain; Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
10
Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Nijmegen, Netherlands; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
11
MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
12
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; Inserm 1111, French International Centre for Infectious Diseases Research (CIRI), Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France; European Respiratory Society (ERS).
13
Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
14
Department Microbiological Surveillance and Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
15
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
16
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland; European Respiratory Society (ERS).
17
Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Burns, Trauma and Critical Care Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; European Respiratory Society (ERS).
18
Radboud Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Centre, Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Nijmegen, Netherlands; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG).
19
Medical Clinic III, University Hospital Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
20
Department of Pneumology, University Hospital of Tenon and Sorbonne, University of Paris, Paris, France; European Respiratory Society (ERS).
21
Infectious Diseases Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini Children's Hospital, Genoa, Italy; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG).
22
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
23
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
24
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece; European Respiratory Society (ERS).
25
Infectious Diseases Service, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
26
Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, Irset (Institut de Recherche en santé, environnement et travail) - UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
27
Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
28
Department of Haematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG).
29
Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Thoracic Clinic, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
30
Centre for Medical Microbiology, University College London, London, UK; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
31
Department of Clinical Mycology, Allergy and Immunology, North Western State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
32
Radboud Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Centre, Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Nijmegen, Netherlands; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
33
International Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Clinical Infectious Diseases, Research Centre Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine & Biosciences, Borstel, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Tuberculosis Unit, Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems Site, Lübeck, Germany; European Respiratory Society (ERS).
34
Division of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
35
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Children's Hospital, University of Paris, Paris, France; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
36
Department of Haematology, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
37
Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Medicine, Ensemble Hospitalier de la Côte, Morges, Switzerland; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
38
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Nijmegen, Netherlands; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
39
Department of Haematology, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
40
Quality Unit, Pôle Prébloc, Saint-Louis and Lariboisière Hospital Group, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
41
The National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Mycology Reference Centre Manchester, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, Manchester, UK; The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
42
Infectious Diseases Unit, 3rd Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University School of Health Sciences, Thessaloniki, Greece; Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
43
Department of Haematology and Oncology, Paracelsus Hospital, Osnabrück, Germany; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
44
Institute of Microbiology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
45
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
46
Department of Haematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Szent István and Szent László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG).
47
First Department of Medicine, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
48
Department I of Internal Medicine, ECMM Excellence Centre of Medical Mycology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Centre for Integrated Oncology, Cologne-Bonn, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF) partner site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, Germany; European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
49
Ospedale Policlinico San Martino and University of Genova (DISSAL), Genova, Italy; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).
50
First Department of Medicine, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF) partner site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, Germany; CECAD Cluster of Excellence, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Clinical Trials Center Cologne, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG); European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM); ESCMID European Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH). Electronic address: Oliver.cornely@uk-koeln.de.

Abstract

The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended. Serum and BAL galactomannan measures are recommended as markers for the diagnosis of IA. PCR should be considered in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Pathogen identification to species complex level is strongly recommended for all clinically relevant Aspergillus isolates; antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in patients with invasive disease in regions with resistance found in contemporary surveillance programmes. Isavuconazole and voriconazole are the preferred agents for first-line treatment of pulmonary IA, whereas liposomal amphotericin B is moderately supported. Combinations of antifungals as primary treatment options are not recommended. Therapeutic drug monitoring is strongly recommended for patients receiving posaconazole suspension or any form of voriconazole for IA treatment, and in refractory disease, where a personalized approach considering reversal of predisposing factors, switching drug class and surgical intervention is also strongly recommended. Primary prophylaxis with posaconazole is strongly recommended in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome receiving induction chemotherapy. Secondary prophylaxis is strongly recommended in high-risk patients. We strongly recommend treatment duration based on clinical improvement, degree of immunosuppression and response on imaging.

KEYWORDS:

Aspergillosis; Diagnosis; Haematology; Invasive fungal infection; Transplantation; Treatment

PMID:
29544767
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmi.2018.01.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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