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Alzheimers Res Ther. 2018 Mar 15;10(1):30. doi: 10.1186/s13195-018-0359-x.

White paper by the Society for CSF Analysis and Clinical Neurochemistry: Overcoming barriers in biomarker development and clinical translation.

Author information

Neurochemistry Lab and Biobank, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, Hospital Network Antwerp (ZNA) Middelheim and Hoge Beuken, Antwerp, Belgium.
Department of Neurology, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
Université de Montpellier, University Hospital, INSERM U1183, Montpellier, France.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Department of Neurodegeneration Diagnostics, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.
Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, University Hospital of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.
Memory Unit, Department of Neurology, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques Sant Pau, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, CIBERNED, Madrid, Spain.
Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.
University of Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5292, INSERM U1028, BioRan, Lyon, France.
Department of Neurology, CSF Laboratory, MS Outpatient Unit, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
Specialty Hospital of Neurology Dietenbronn, Acadamic Hospital of University of Ulm, Schwendi, Germany.
Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Departments of Neurology and Laboratory Medicine, Radboud Alzheimer Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center (UMG), Georg-August University, Goettingen, Germany.
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Goettingen, Germany.
iBiMED, Medical Sciences Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.
UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
Center for Memory Disturbances, Lab of Clinical Neurochemistry, Section of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.


Body fluid biomarkers have great potential for different clinical purposes, including diagnosis, prognosis, patient stratification and treatment effect monitoring. This is exemplified by current use of several excellent biomarkers, such as the Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, anti-neuromyelitis optica antibodies and blood neurofilament light. We still, however, have a strong need for additional biomarkers and several gaps in their development and implementation should be filled. Examples of such gaps are i) limited knowledge of the causes of neurological diseases, and thus hypotheses about the best biomarkers to detect subclinical stages of these diseases; ii) the limited success translating discoveries obtained by e.g. initial mass spectrometry proteomic low-throughput studies into immunoassays for widespread clinical implementation; iii) lack of interaction among all stakeholders to optimise and adapt study designs throughout the biomarker development process to medical needs, which may change during the long period needed for biomarker development.The Society for CSF Analysis and Clinical Neurochemistry (established in 2015) has been founded as a concerted follow-up of large standardisation projects, including BIOMARKAPD and SOPHIA, and the BioMS-consortium.The main aims of the CSF society are to exchange high level international scientific experience, to facilitate the incorporation of CSF diagnostics into clinical practice and to give advice on inclusion of CSF analysis into clinical guidelines. The society has a broad scope, as its vision is that the gaps in development and implementation of biomarkers are shared among almost all neurological diseases and thus they can benefit from the activities of the society.


Assay development; Biomarker discovery; Body fluids; Cerebrospinal fluid; Clinical implementation; Education Biomarkers; Neurology; Society

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