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Mol Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr;8(4):603-608. doi: 10.3892/mco.2018.1574. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Bronchobiliary fistula after multiple transcatheter arterial chemoembolizations for hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report.

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Department of Interventional Radiology, First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213000, P.R. China.
Department of Interventional Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China.
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.


Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition, defined as an abnormal communication between the bronchial system and the biliary tree. Patients with this condition usually present with massive biliptysis, and the mortality rate is high. BBF has been reported to occur in patients with congenital conditions, complications of trauma, hepatic abscesses and biliary tract obstruction (surgical as well as non-surgical). However, to the best of our knowledge, BBF as a complication of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been reported to date. We herein report a case of BBF developing as a complication following TACE in a 71-year-old male patient with HCC. The patient was treated by placement of a metallic biliary stent followed by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage to decompress the intrahepatic biliary tree, and his symptoms were immediately relieved.


biliary drainage; bronchobiliary fistula; transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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