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J Immunol. 1987 Jun 1;138(11):3688-94.

Two types of murine helper T cell clone. II. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is mediated by TH1 clones.


We have previously shown that at least two types of Lyt-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+ helper T cell clones can be distinguished in vitro by different patterns of lymphokine secretion and by different forms of B cell help. Evidence is presented here to show that one type of helper T cell clone (TH1) causes delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) when injected with the appropriate antigen into the footpads of naive mice. The antigen-specific, major histocompatability complex (MHC)-restricted footpad swelling reaction peaked at approximately 24 hr. Footpad swelling was induced by all TH1 clones tested so far, including clones specific for soluble, particulate, or allogeneic antigens. In contrast, local transfer of TH2 cells and antigen did not produce a DTH reaction, even when supplemented with syngeneic spleen accessory cells. Similarly, local transfer of an alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone into appropriate recipients did not produce DTH. The requirements for the DTH reaction induced by TH1 cells were investigated further by using TH1 clones with dual specificity for both foreign antigens and M1s antigens. Although these clones responded in vitro to either antigen + syngeneic presenting cells, or M1s disparate spleen cells, they responded in vivo only to antigen + MHC and did not cause footpad swelling in an M1s-disparate mouse in the absence of antigen. Moreover, in vitro preactivation of TH1 or TH2 cells with the lectin concanavalin A was insufficient to induce DTH reactions upon subsequent injection into footpads. From these results, we conclude that the lack of DTH given by TH2 clones in vivo could be due to the inability of the TH2 cells to produce the correct mediators of DTH, or to a lack of stimulation of TH2 clones in the footpad environment.

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