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JMIR Res Protoc. 2018 Mar 13;7(3):e77. doi: 10.2196/resprot.9147.

Strengths-Based Behavioral Intervention for Parents of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Using an mHealth App (Type 1 Doing Well): Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

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Section of Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.
Dan L Duncan Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States.
Children's Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Houston, TX, United States.
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.
Section of Pediatric Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.



Supportive parent involvement for adolescents' type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-management promotes optimal diabetes outcomes. However, family conflict is common and can interfere with collaborative family teamwork. Few interventions have used explicitly strengths-based approaches to help reinforce desired management behaviors and promote positive family interactions around diabetes care.


The aim of this protocol was to describe the development of a new, strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with T1D delivered via a mobile-friendly Web app called Type 1 Doing Well.


Ten adolescent-parent dyads and 5 diabetes care providers participated in a series of qualitative interviews to inform the design of the app. The 3- to 4-month pilot intervention will involve 82 parents receiving daily prompts to use the app, in which they will mark the diabetes-related strength behaviors (ie, positive attitudes or behaviors related to living with or managing T1D) their teen engaged in that day. Parents will also receive training on how to observe diabetes strengths and how to offer teen-friendly praise via the app. Each week, the app will generate a summary of the teen's most frequent strengths from the previous week based on parent reports, and parents will be encouraged to praise their teen either in person or from a library of reinforcing text messages (short message service, SMS).


The major outcomes of this pilot study will include intervention feasibility and satisfaction data. Clinical and behavioral outcomes will include glycemic control, regimen adherence, family relationships and conflict, diabetes burden, and health-related quality of life.


This strengths-based, mobile health (mHealth) intervention aims to help parents increase their awareness of and efforts to support their adolescents' engagement in positive diabetes-related behaviors. If efficacious, this intervention has the potential to reduce the risk of family conflict, enhance collaborative family teamwork, and ultimately improve diabetes outcomes.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02877680; (Archived by WebCite at


adolescence; parenting; type 1 diabetes

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