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Med Clin (Barc). 2018 Aug 10;151(3):123.e1-123.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2018.01.013. Epub 2018 Mar 11.

Practice guidelines for the emergency treatment of thrombotic microangiopathy.

[Article in English, Spanish]

Author information

1
Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España. Electronic address: romero_sam@gva.es.
2
Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España; CIBERONC (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer).
3
Sección de Nefrología Pediátrica, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
4
Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
5
Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
6
Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
7
Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
8
Servicio Orgánico de Urgencias, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
9
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.
10
Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset, Valencia, España; Universidad Católica de Valencia «San Vicente Mártir», Valencia, España.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

The term thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) involves a heterogeneous group of diseases that can be overwhelming or invalidating, with an acute development, characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopaenia. Its management during its initial hours is essential to improving the prognostic of these patients. The aim of this review is to give recommendations about the optimisation of TMA initial treatment and to accelerate the aetiological diagnosis.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We provide a practice guideline based on four steps for the initial management of TMA: diagnosis of suspicion, syndromic confirmation, emergent treatment and complementary tests.

RESULTS:

The detection of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (characterised by elevated reticulocytes, LDH and indirect bilirubin, negative direct Coombs test and schistocytes in peripheral blood), and thrombocytopaenia not explained by other secondary aetiologies confirm the syndromic diagnosis of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopaenia (MAHAT). These patients require admission to an Intensive Care Unit to initiate plasma exchange therapy as soon as possible, ideally within the first 4-8hours. Prior to this, samples for ADAMTS13 and complement study should be obtained. Finally, it is important to request the complementary tests necessary to have a correct aetiological diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Adherence to the agreed recommendations in this guideline will improve therapeutic results by facilitating cooperation between different specialists involved in TMA management.

KEYWORDS:

Anemia hemolítica microangiopática; Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia; Microangiopatía trombótica; Plasma exchange; Recambio plasmático; Thrombocytopaenia; Thrombotic microangiopathy; Trombocitopenia

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