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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Mar 12;15(3). pii: E495. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030495.

Protozoan Parasites in Drinking Water: A System Approach for Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and General Hygiene, Karaganda State Medical University, Gogol Street 40, Karaganda 100008, Kazakhstan. alua_1912@mail.ru.
2
Department of International Cooperation and Bologna Process, Karaganda State Medical University, Gogol Street 40, Karaganda 100008, Kazakhstan. kamshat.tussupova@tvrl.lth.se.
3
Division of Water Resources Engineering & Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. kamshat.tussupova@tvrl.lth.se.
4
Division of Water Resources Engineering & Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. ronny.berndtsson@tvrl.lth.se.
5
Department of Nutrition and General Hygiene, Karaganda State Medical University, Gogol Street 40, Karaganda 100008, Kazakhstan. marchelo99.62@mail.ru.
6
Department of Surgery, Gynecology and Pediatry, Semey State Medical University, Pavlodar Branch, Toraigyrov Street 72/1, Pavlodar 140000, Kazakhstan. sharapatova_kulyash@mail.ru.

Abstract

Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people's health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH. The findings indicate that Giardia and Cryptosporidium are more often identified during waterborne or water-washed outbreaks and they are less sensitive than most of the bacteria and viruses to conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment methods. There are various institutions of control and prevention of water-related diseases caused by protozoa in developed countries. Unfortunately, the developing regions do not have comparable systems. Consequently, the institutional and systems approach to WASH is necessary in these countries.

KEYWORDS:

Cryptosporidium; Giardia; WASH; developing countries; drinking water; protozoan parasites

PMID:
29534511
PMCID:
PMC5877040
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph15030495
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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