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Sensors (Basel). 2018 Mar 13;18(3). pii: E850. doi: 10.3390/s18030850.

EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait.

Author information

1
Inertia Technology B.V., 7521 AG Enschede, The Netherlands. stephan@inertia-technology.com.
2
Department of Computer Science, Pervasive Systems Group, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands. stephan@inertia-technology.com.
3
Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands. F.M.SerraBraganca@uu.nl.
4
Inertia Technology B.V., 7521 AG Enschede, The Netherlands. mihai@inertia-technology.com.
5
Inertia Technology B.V., 7521 AG Enschede, The Netherlands. raluca@inertia-technology.com.
6
Inertia Technology B.V., 7521 AG Enschede, The Netherlands. berendjan@inertia-technology.com.
7
Rosmark Consultancy, 6733 AA Wekerom, The Netherlands. info@rosmark.nl.
8
Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands. W.Back@uu.nl.
9
Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. W.Back@uu.nl.
10
Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands. r.vanweeren@uu.nl.
11
Department of Computer Science, Pervasive Systems Group, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands. p.j.m.havinga@utwente.nl.

Abstract

In this paper, we describe and validate the EquiMoves system, which aims to support equine veterinarians in assessing lameness and gait performance in horses. The system works by capturing horse motion from up to eight synchronized wireless inertial measurement units. It can be used in various equine gait modes, and analyzes both upper-body and limb movements. The validation against an optical motion capture system is based on a Bland-Altman analysis that illustrates the agreement between the two systems. The sagittal kinematic results (protraction, retraction, and sagittal range of motion) show limits of agreement of ± 2.3 degrees and an absolute bias of 0.3 degrees in the worst case. The coronal kinematic results (adduction, abduction, and coronal range of motion) show limits of agreement of - 8.8 and 8.1 degrees, and an absolute bias of 0.4 degrees in the worst case. The worse coronal kinematic results are most likely caused by the optical system setup (depth perception difficulty and suboptimal marker placement). The upper-body symmetry results show no significant bias in the agreement between the two systems; in most cases, the agreement is within ±5 mm. On a trial-level basis, the limits of agreement for withers and sacrum are within ±2 mm, meaning that the system can properly quantify motion asymmetry. Overall, the bias for all symmetry-related results is less than 1 mm, which is important for reproducibility and further comparison to other systems.

KEYWORDS:

IMU; agreement analysis; gait analysis; horse; lameness; optical motion capture

PMID:
29534022
PMCID:
PMC5877382
DOI:
10.3390/s18030850
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Mihai Marin-Perianu, Raluca Marin-Perianu and Paul Havinga founded Inertia-Technology B.V. (Enschede, The Netherlands), which sells the inertial sensor system (ProMove-mini) that is used as the basis of the EquiMoves system, which is evaluated in this study. Stephan Bosch and Berend-Jan van der Zwaag are employees of Inertia-Technology B.V.

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