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Open Heart. 2018 Feb 26;5(1):e000750. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2017-000750. eCollection 2018.

The prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 considering different aetiologies in non-ischaemic heart failure.

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Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.



Several studies indicate a prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 in heart failure (HF). While previous studies focused on ischaemic cause of HF, we investigated the role of sST2 and galectin-3 in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).


sST2 and galectin-3 serum concentrations were measured in 262 subjects with DCM. Survival rates were determined for all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac mortality (CM).


In a univariate model, sST2 as a continuous variable was a predictor of ACM (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07, P<0.001) and CM (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06, P=0.040). In the subgroup of patients with inflammatory and/or viral DCM (DCMi⋎viral), the endpoints ACM (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17, P<0.001) and CM (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.18, P=0.013) were significant. In the subgroup of patients with idiopathic DCM, the endpoint ACM (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, P=0.019) was significant. In a multivariate model, the prognostic value of the sST2 main group remained intact for ACM (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, P=0.003).Univariate and multivariate analysis of galectin-3 as continuous variable did not show any significant result. However, in a quartile model, intermediate values of galectin-3 were significantly associated with a lower event rate of ACM and CM.


The study revealed that sST2 predicts ACM and CM in patients with non-ischaemic HF and could be useful especially in patients with inflammatory background. Our findings that intermediate levels of galectin-3 allow for better prognosis were new and different to other investigations.

Trial registration number:

NCT03090425; Results.


Dilated Cardiomyopathy; Galectin-3; Heart failure; sST2; soluble ST2

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