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Nat Microbiol. 2018 May;3(5):537-547. doi: 10.1038/s41564-018-0128-4. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Coccolithovirus facilitation of carbon export in the North Atlantic.

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Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA.
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom.
School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Walpole, ME, USA.
Western Australian Organic and Isotope Geochemistry Center, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia.
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
The Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences-Eilat, Eilat, Israel.
College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.
Department of Marine Geosciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, Faial, Azores, Portugal.
Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA.
Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.


Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity 1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon 2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration 2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean 2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100‚ÄČkm) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer. Our analyses captured blooms in different phases of infection (early, late and post) and revealed the highest export flux in 'early-infected blooms' with sinking particles being disproportionately enriched with infected cells and subsequently remineralized at depth in the mesopelagic. Our findings reveal viral infection as a previously unrecognized ecosystem process enhancing biological pump efficiency.

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