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Diabetes Care. 2018 May;41(5):1049-1060. doi: 10.2337/dc17-1992. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Meat Cooking Methods and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
2
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
3
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
4
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA qisun@hsph.harvard.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine open-flame and/or high-temperature cooking (grilling/barbecuing, broiling, or roasting) and doneness preferences (rare, medium, or well done) for red meat, chicken, and fish in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. adults who consumed animal flesh regularly (≥2 servings/week).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

The prospective studies included 52,752 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (followed during 1996-2012), 60,809 women from NHS II (followed during 2001-2013), and 24,679 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) (followed during 1996-2012) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Incident cases of T2D were confirmed by validated supplementary questionnaires.

RESULTS:

We documented 7,895 incident cases of T2D during 1.74 million person-years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustments including baseline BMI and total consumption of red meat, chicken, and fish, higher frequency of open-flame and/or high-temperature cooking was independently associated with an elevated T2D risk. When comparing open-flame and/or high-temperature cooking >15 times/month with <4 times/month, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of T2D was 1.28 (1.18, 1.39; Ptrend <0.001). When comparing the extreme quartiles of doneness-weighted frequency of high-temperature cooking, the pooled HR (95% CI) of T2D was 1.20 (1.12, 1.28; Ptrend <0.001). These associations remained significant when red meat and chicken were examined separately. In addition, estimated intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines was also associated with an increased T2D risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Independent of consumption amount, open-flame and/or high-temperature cooking for both red meat and chicken is associated with an increased T2D risk among adults who consume animal flesh regularly.

PMID:
29530926
PMCID:
PMC5911789
DOI:
10.2337/dc17-1992
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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