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Mod Rheumatol. 2019 Jan;29(1):151-156. doi: 10.1080/14397595.2018.1452173. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

The impact of musculoskeletal diseases on the presence of locomotive syndrome.

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a Department of Public Health, Health Management and Policy , Nara Medical University Faculty of Medicine , Kashihara, Nara , Japan.
b Department of Orthopedic Surgery , Nara Medical University , Kashihara, Nara , Japan.



We assessed the impact of musculoskeletal diseases, depressive mental state, and hypertension on locomotive syndrome, a condition of reduced mobility requiring nursing care. Since locomotive syndrome is a major public health issue that needs attention, its relationship with functional inconvenience in performing daily activities was also investigated.


We conducted a cross-sectional study using an Internet panel survey, comprising 747 persons aged 30-90 years. Demographics, personal medical history, and daily activity data were assessed. The 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale was used to diagnose locomotive syndrome. Stepwise linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the association between locomotive syndrome, musculoskeletal diseases, and functional inconvenience.


Aging, osteoporosis, and low back pain significantly increased the risk of locomotive syndrome, followed by knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spinal stenosis. Locomotive syndrome was significantly related to depressive mental state and hypertension, and led to functional inconvenience in Seiza sitting, cleaning, shopping, and strolling.


Locomotive syndrome was associated with functional inconvenience in performing common daily activities involving the lower extremities and spine. Osteoporosis and aging were significantly associated with locomotive syndrome. The risk of locomotive syndrome may be decreased by treating comorbid osteoporosis and instituting exercise and diet-related modifications.


Hypertension; locomotive syndrome; low back pain; musculoskeletal disease; osteoporosis

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