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Int Immunol. 2018 Aug 30;30(9):397-402. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxy020.

The critical role of Bach2 in regulating type 2 chronic airway inflammation.

Author information

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime, Japan.
Translational Research Center, Ehime University Hospital, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime, Japan.
Division of Immune Regulation, Department of Proteo-Inovation, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Toon City, Ehime, Japan.


Although Bach2 (broad complex-tramtrack-bric a brac and Cap'n'collar homology 2) plays an important role in regulating Th2 cell differentiation and type 2 immune responses, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our current studies demonstrate that Bach2 associates with Batf (basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like) family transcription factors and binds to the regulatory regions of the Th2 cytokine gene loci. The Bach2-Batf complex antagonizes the recruitment of the interferon regulatory factor 4 (Irf4)-containing Batf complex to activator protein 1 (AP-1) motifs in the Th2 cytokine gene locus and suppresses Th2 cytokine production and/or Th2 cell differentiation. The deletion of Batf ameliorated the spontaneous development of type 2 airway inflammation that is found in mice with Bach2 deficiency specifically in T cells. Interestingly, Bach2 regulates Batf and Batf3 expression via two distinct pathways. First, the Bach2-Batf complex directly binds to the Batf and Batf3 gene loci and reduces transcription by interfering with the Batf-Irf4 complex. Second, Bach2 suppresses interleukin 4 (IL-4)-induced augmentation of Batf and Batf3 expression through the regulation of IL-4 production. These findings suggest that IL-4 and Batf family transcription factors form a positive feedback amplification loop to induce Th2 cell differentiation and that Bach2-Batf interactions block the formation of this amplification loop. Furthermore, we found that reductions in Bach2 confer an innate immunological function on CD4 T cells to induce antigen-independent cytokine production. Some Bach2-deficient lung CD4 T cells showed characteristic features similar to pathogenic Th2 cells, including IL-33 receptor expression and IL-33-dependent Th2 cytokine production. These results suggest a critical role for Bach2 in regulating Th2 cell differentiation and the subsequent onset of chronic type 2 inflammation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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