Send to

Choose Destination
Psychol Psychother. 2018 Dec;91(4):509-525. doi: 10.1111/papt.12176. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Positive emotion in distress as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy for depression: A preliminary investigation.

Author information

National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.



Emotion regulation utilizing positive emotion during negative emotional states might be one of the effective ways to alleviate depression and anxiety problems among people with emotional disorders. This study examined the psychometric properties and incremental validity of the Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS), a newly developed self-report scale, in a sample of university students in Japan.


To examine the psychometric properties of the PEIDS, the scale was completed by Japanese university students (396 men and 363 women; mean age of 19.92). Participants additionally answered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire - Shorter Version, Affective Style Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The survey was conducted at two time points separated by 1 month to assess test-retest reliability and validity of the PEIDS.


Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure. Reliability was confirmed by high internal consistency and test-retest stability; the convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed by correlations with related and unrelated variables. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive emotion in distress might predict depression above and beyond the effect of baseline depression and other common emotion regulation strategies.


The PEIDS showed acceptable reliability and validity within young adults and a non-clinical population in Japan. Further research will be needed to examine the effect of positive emotion among clinical populations.


Previous research suggests that positive emotions play a key role in recovery from depression and anxiety problems through some forms of psychotherapy. The Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS) measures individual differences regarding the extent to which people can experience positive emotions in negative emotional states. Results suggested that the subjective rating of the ability to experience positive emotions in distress might alleviate depression prospectively but not anxiety problems. The effect of positive emotion in distress demonstrated to have beyond the effects of other emotion regulation strategies.


Japanese university students; assessment; depression; incremental validity; positive emotion regulation; psychometric properties

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center