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Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018 May 30;117:351-361. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2018.03.011. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Pharmacometabolomics analysis of plasma to phenotype clopidogrel high on treatment platelets reactivity in coronary artery disease patients.

Author information

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address: arwa.amin.m@gmail.com.
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
3
Bruker Sdn Bhd, Malaysia.
4
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; Cardiology Department, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Penang, Malaysia.

Abstract

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of clopidogrel and aspirin is crucial for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, some patients may endure clopidogrel high on treatment platelets reactivity (HTPR) which may cause thromboembolic events. Clopidogrel HTPR is multifactorial with some genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to it. We aimed to use nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) pharmacometabolomics analysis of plasma to investigate this multifactorial and identify metabolic phenotypes and pathways associated with clopidogrel HTPR. Blood samples were collected from 71 CAD patients planned for interventional angiographic procedure (IAP) before the administration of clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose (LD) and 6 h after the LD. Platelets function testing was done 6 h post-LD using VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. Pre-dose and post-dose plasma samples were analysed using 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to indicate the discriminating metabolites. Two metabotypes, each with 34 metabolites (pre-dose and post-dose) were associated with clopidogrel HTPR. Pathway analysis of these metabotypes revealed that aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and glycine-serine-threonine metabolism are the most perturbed metabolic pathways associated with clopidogrel HTPR. Furthermore, the identified biomarkers indicated that clopidogrel HTPR is multifactorial where the metabolic phenotypes of insulin resistance, type two diabetes mellitus, obesity, gut-microbiota and heart failure are associated with it. Pharmacometabolomics analysis of plasma revealed new insights on the implicated metabolic pathways and the predisposing factors of clopidogrel HTPR.

KEYWORDS:

(1)H NMR; Clopidogrel; High on treatment platelets reactivity; Personalized medicine; Pharmacometabolomics; VerifyNow System

PMID:
29526765
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejps.2018.03.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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