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Curr Biol. 2018 Mar 19;28(6):963-971.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.02.015. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Rapid Global Spread of wRi-like Wolbachia across Multiple Drosophila.

Author information

1
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address: mturelli@ucdavis.edu.
2
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.
3
School of BioSciences, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.
4
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
5
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
6
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Department of Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
7
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
8
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
9
Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
10
Laboratory of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091, China.
11
School of BioSciences, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia. Electronic address: ary@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects [1], but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans [2, 3]. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare [4-7]. Here, we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila hosts (10-50 million years) over only about 14,000 years (5,000-27,000). Comparing 110 wRi-like genomes, we find ≤0.02% divergence from the wRi variant that spread rapidly through California populations of D. simulans. The hosts include both globally invasive species (D. simulans, D. suzukii, and D. ananassae) and narrowly distributed Australian endemics (D. anomalata and D. pandora) [8]. Phylogenetic analyses that include mtDNA genomes indicate introgressive transfer of wRi-like Wolbachia between closely related species D. ananassae, D. anomalata, and D. pandora but no horizontal transmission within species. Our analyses suggest D. ananassae as the Wolbachia source for the recent wRi invasion of D. simulans and D. suzukii as the source of Wolbachia in its sister species D. subpulchrella. Although six of these wRi-like variants cause strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, two cause no detectable reproductive effects, indicating that pervasive mutualistic effects [9, 10] complement the reproductive manipulations for which Wolbachia are best known. "Super spreader" variants like wRi may be particularly useful for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases with Wolbachia transinfections [11].

KEYWORDS:

cytoplasmic incompatibility; disease control; horizontal transmission; introgression; mitochondrial variation; mutualistic endosymbiont

PMID:
29526588
PMCID:
PMC5882237
[Available on 2019-03-19]
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2018.02.015

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